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Ecosystem restoration

Mains-GS-3-Environment

1. The UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration was launched recently to prevent, halt and reverse the degradation of ecosystems.

2. The UN Environment Programme and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization will lead the implementation.

Need for restoration

1. The following aspects necessitate ecosystem restoration

a. Covid 19 pandemic is a direct result of environmental degradation.

b. Zoonotic pathogens are more frequently affecting humans.

c. There has been considerable damage already done to earth.

d. Sustainable land use, judicious exploitation of resources and proper maintenance of

forests have not been adhered to.

India and restoration

1. India has already started the path of restoration and recovery from 2019.

2. It announced restoration of degraded lands from 21 to 26 million hectares by 2030.

3. India must participate actively in this decade of restoration.

4. Ten years of sustained action to protect and revive the country’s ecosystems will help India to end poverty.

5. Enhancing livelihoods, combating climate change by reviving natural carbon stores, and halting the collapse of biodiversity by rebuilding homes for wildlife are aspects that will improve India's prospects.

Ideas for India

To restore India's degraded lands following aspects are essential

Carbon reduction

1. India must adhere to the commitment of reducing the net carbon dioxide emissions by 45% by 2030 compared to 2010.

2. India needs to reach net-zero emissions by 2050 to have a hope of achieving the 1.5°C Paris Agreement target.

3. This can be done by transforming energy systems, land use, agriculture, forest protection, urban development, infrastructure, and lifestyles.

4, Climate change targets and biodiversity conservation have to proceed simultaneously.

Sustainability

1. India needs to transform its economic, financial and production systems towards sustainability.

2. Following are key to this path

a. Including natural capital in decision-making.

b. Eliminating environmentally harmful subsidies.

c. Investing in low-carbon and nature-friendly technologies.

3. Investments in sustainable development need to be made financially attractive to enable further flows.

4. Knowledge base, scientific expertise and policy should guide India in this process.

Individual contribution

1. The power to revive our environment lies with us as individuals.

The need

1. India must work towards creating food systems that

a. Work with nature

b. Reduce waste

c. Adaptive to change

d. Resilient to shocks

2. Small scale farmers and women farmers need to be empowered.

3. Patterns of consumption need to be changed.

4. Current social norms and business practices need to be changed.

5. All these can be achieved through capacity building , education , cooperation and collaboration

Source : The Hindu

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