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India China Relations 

Mains- GS-2-International Relations

1. India and China had a good relationship despite the unresolved border.

2. Border problem has been prevented from intruding into economic and people relations.

3. Peace at the border has been maintained for 4 decades.

Changing order

1. Untrammeled rise of China generated new global order.

2. Two nationalisms contended and gulf grew.

3. Galwan signalled the collapse of the edifice of bilateral relations

4. Peace building measures were rendered obsolete.


1. Since 1993, a number of agreements have been signed to build confidence at the borders.

2. These agreements include

a. The Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility along the Line of Actual Control.

b. The Agreement on Confidence-Building Measures in the Military Field Along the Line of Actual Control (1996)

c. Protocol on Modalities for the Implementation of Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field Along the Line of Actual Control(2005)

d. Agreement on the Establishment of a Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on lndia-China Border Affairs (2012)

e. Agreement on Border Defence Cooperation (2013).

Key provisions

1. Following are the major imports of these agreements.

a. The boundary question would be resolved peacefully

b. Neither side would use force

c. Both side would respect and observe the Line of Actual Control (LAC)

d. Joint checking and determination of the segments of the LAC where there is different views

e. Speed up clarification and confirmation of the LAC

f. Military forces would be kept to a minimum level in agreed zones of LAC

g. Military exercises would be undertaken only at specified levels

h. Prior notice would be given regarding flights of combat aircraft within 10 kilometres from the LAC

 i. Border personnel would exercise self-restraint and avoid an escalation in case of difference of opinion.

j. Channels of communication and border personnel meetings in case of contingencies to be held.

Managing a bigger power

1. Following learnings could be derived from the normalization of Russia - China relationship from 1960s to 2020.

a. Unilateral concessions to be given to smaller power (China) by the bigger power(Russia) in the disputed territory to reduce insecurity.

b. Mutual reduction of forces along the border.

c. Asymmetric reductions in military strength builds confidence.

D. Identification of common interest between two countries.

e. Commitment to broad-based and institutionalized relationship.

India's Experience

1. Despite several agreements, mutual trust and political trust was missing.

2. No final boundary settlement accompanied so far.

3. China never was willing to make unilateral concessions to India as Russia did to china.

4. All these have kept India China relations dry.

Source : the Hindu