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Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
The 123rd birth anniversary of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was celebrated on 23rd January 2020.
How was Netaji’s early life?
1. SC Bose was born in Cuttack in Odisha then part of Bengal province.
2. He was influenced by the Swami Vivekananda’s teachings.
3. He cleared the Indian Civil Service (ICS) exam in 1920 and resigned in 1921 to join Indian National Congress (INC) and contribute to the freedom movement.
What was his contribution in INC?
1. He joined the Non-Cooperation Movement started by Mahatma Gandhi.
2. In 1923, he was elected President of All India Youth Congress.
3. He started the newspaper ‘Swaraj’ and also took charge of publicity for Bengal Provincial Congress Committee.
4. He was made editor of an anti-British newspaper founded by Deshbandhu Chittranjan Das. He was jailed for his anti-British writings.
5. He also worked for Swaraj party with Chittranjan Das, who is also his political mentor.
6. In 1927, he became General secretary of Congress and worked with Jawaharlal Nehru.
7. In 1928, he led a march with two thousand youths wearing military uniform, against British rule in Calcutta.
8. In the 1930s Bose travelled Europe and met Indian students and leaders including Mussolini.
9. He also wrote the first part of his book Indian struggle 1920 to 1934 during this period.
10. In 1938, Bose was elected as the President of the INC.
11. He was re-elected as the president in 1939 but resigned after the differences cropped up between him and Congress leaders.
Which are the reasons for the differences?
1. He demanded independent status for India and not dominion status or to be attached as a part of the Commonwealth of Nations.
2. Demanding complete independence i.e. Swaraj, he gave a call for freedom and asked the party to decide upon a date to achieve it.
4. In case of failure to achieve freedom by the given date, he wanted to lead the party into a violent protest against the British.
5. This was opposed by Mahatma Gandhi, resulting in a break away from Congress and establishment of Forward bloc in June 1939.
Why did Bose prefer the violent way of protest?
1. During NCM the British repression became intense as the movement proceeded.
2. So, he felt Gandhian ideology and strategy to be very mild, and non-violence as unsuitable means.
3. He wanted violence to be dealt with violence and not ahimsa.
4. His All India Forward Bloc also aimed at consolidating the political left and revolutionaries to fight for India’s independence.
Where did Bose head after quitting INC?
1. Bose believed in defeating the British in India when they are engaged in the World War.
2. He was prompted by revolutionary leader Rash Bihari Bosh to mobilize foreign help for Indian freedom struggle.
3. He reached Germany via Kabul and formed the Liberation Army by liberating Indian prisoners of war of British Indian Army imprisoned by Italy and Germany.
4. In Germany, Bose earned the title of ‘Netaji’ by the Indian soldiers.
5. Unable to garner the support of Hitler he moved to Japan.
6. In 1943, Bose reached Japan and was given the responsibility of leading the Azad Hind Fauj, established by captain Mohan Singh.
7. In October 1943, Bose proclaimed the establishment of provisional independent Indian government.
9. In February 1944, the Azad Hind Fauj attacked the British Army.
10. The Azad Hind forge along with Japanese troops reached India in March 1944 and Indian tricolour modelled after that of INC was raised for the first time in the town of Moirang in Manipur.
8. He also gave the war cry “Give me blood and I will give you Freedom” and “Jai Hind” which later became war cries of the freedom struggle.
9. In July 1944, Bose addressed Mahatma Gandhi “as father of the Nation” for the first time.
10. With the retreat and final surrender of Japanese forces, efforts of Azad Hind Fauj also came to an end.
12. On 18th August 1945, Bose reportedly died in Japanese Hospital in Taiwan as a result of burn injuries from a plane crash.