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New Education Policy 2020

Mains- GS-2-Social Justice

What is the New Education Policy ?

1. An NEP is a comprehensive framework to guide the development of education in India.

2. In 1964, the Education Commission, headed by D S Kothari, was constituted to draft a national and coordinated policy on education.

3. Based on the suggestions of this Commission, Parliament passed the first education policy in 1968.

4. Second education policy was framed in 1986 and the third one in 2020.

Which are the key takeaways of the NEP 2020?

1. It proposes the opening up of Indian higher education to foreign universities.

2. It proposes the dismantling of the UGC and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE).

3. It introduces a four-year multidisciplinary undergraduate programme with multiple exit options.

4. The M Phil programme is to be discontinued.

5. It aims to attain 100 % Gross Enrolment Ratio in school education by 2030.

6. The policy will eliminate the distinction between arts, science, commerce

7. The policy aims at mainstreaming vocational courses.

8. A Multi disciplinary higher education system to fulfil the needs of the day is proposed.

How does it reform school education?

1. It proposes a “5+3+3+4” design corresponding to the age groups 3-8 years (foundational stage), 8-11 (preparatory), 11-14 (middle), and 14-18 (secondary).

2. Early school education is now under the ambit of formal schooling.

3. Students until Class 5 should be taught in their mother tongue or regional language.

Who will implement these reforms?

1. Since education is a concurrent subject, the reforms can only be implemented collaboratively by the Centre and the states.

2. HRD Ministry, state Education Departments, school Boards, NCERT, Central Advisory Board of Education and National Testing Agency are some of the key stakeholders in the implementation of these reforms.

How will the unpacking of the UG program help?

1. This will help the mobility from the classroom to the workroom.

2. It will help students gain more employable skills and experience.

3. This will help students to understand the system holistically.

How will the entry of foreign universities help?

1. Indian students spending a lot of money on education abroad will now have cheaper alternatives.

2. Foreign Universities can attract students from other countries and make India a knowledge hub.

3. Indian universities will be exposed to global competition. This gives them a scope for improvisation.

4. This would promote research of a higher quality in India.

5. Recognition of one year degree programs will help mobility of Indian and foreign students.

Where the policy lacks?

1. The policy is released at a time when there is a pandemic in India, this renders discussion and debate difficult.

2. The policy doesn’t talk about Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Groups.

3. There is no mention of reservation in academic institutions, whether for students, teachers, or other employees.

4. There is only a passing reference to educational institutions in tribal areas, designated as ashram shalas whose role is not defined.

5. The policy talks about privatization of education that may lead to commercialization of education.

6. The policy talks of multidisciplinary education but it didn’t consider fields of studies such as Women’s Studies or Gender Studies, Cultural Studies, Media Studies, Dalit Studies, Studies of Discrimination and Exclusion, Environmental Studies and Development Studies.

7. The National Testing Agency has been entrusted with the task of conducting multiple exams. This leads to over centralization.

8. The National Higher Education Regulatory Authority (NHERA) also leads to centralization.

Sources: The Indian Express, Livemint, The Financial Express.