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Primordial Black Holes
Prelims- Science & Technology
1. Primordial Black Holes (PBH) were formed during the Hot Big Bang phase. It is believed to have formed as a result of collapsing radiations as opposed to the collapse of massive stars as in the case of any other black holes.
2. This marginal rise in potential energy resulted in the birth of several PBHs and also emitted very powerful gravitational waves.
3. PBH can be massively large as 3000kms or be extremely tiny like the nucleus of an atom.
4. Approximately 14 billion years ago before the commencement of the Hot Big Bang phase, the very young universe was found to be active and expanding at a highly accelerated rate.
5. This exponential growth in its size was fuelled by the presence of uniform energy fields and density as the universe passed through the Cosmic Inflation phase.
6. This uniform energy in the Inflation Field wanes out as time passes, resulting in the universe resuming its normal decelerating rate.
7. But, before the energy dies out completely, there could be a marginal increase in the potential energy for a very brief time.
8. The potential energy of inflation could be higher just by 1%, but significant enough to create vast differences in the densities.
9. Gravity is normally attractive in nature. On the contrary, the Inflation field possessed repulsive gravity pushing the universe to expand at a much faster rate than normal.
10. The universe had expanded to nearly 10^27 times its original size within a fraction of a second by the time the Cosmic Inflation phase concluded.
11. The remnant energy possessed by this gravitational force got converted mainly into photons (light) in addition to protons, electrons, neutrons and other particles.
12. As the universe continued to grow exponentially during the Cosmic Inflation phase, it sent across tiny quantum jitters.
13. These fluctuations, released in a specific fashion, when sufficiently large, slowly give birth to galaxies and stars. Among those that were significantly large, they helped in formation of PBHs.
14. This bump in energy then produces PBHs besides triggering very strong gravitational waves.
15. Further studies of gravitational waves emerging from PBHs could give deeper insights as to how the energy was decaying.
Source: Indian Express