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Skill Development: Issues and Challenges

Why is Skill Development necessary?

1. Technological revolution in India is impacting every sector of its economy- primary, secondary and tertiary.

2. Large scale digitization requires labour force to have high-class skills.

3. Introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), machine learning, etc. has made skill development mandatory for an individual, industry and the economy at large.

4. Skilling also offers many solutions for India like employment generation.

What is the status of skilled in India?

1. India has 62% of its youth in the working-age group of 15-59.

2. Youth working population in India has the potential to be skilled for global jobs as well.

3. But India currently faces a severe shortage of well trained, skilled personnel.

4. Large section of the educated workforce has little or no job skills, making them largely unemployable.

Which are the steps taken?

1. Scaling up skill training to meet the demands of employers and push economic growth is given more focus.

2. Skill India initiative was launched to train and empower the country’s youth.

3. Various ambitious schemes like Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) have been launched to provide industry-relevant skill training to the youths.

4. The National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) stimulates private sector participation in the Indian skill development sector.

5. Central government, state governments, industry and private sector are actively participating in National Skill Development Mission.

6. Sector Skills Council is developing industry-relevant courses with the collaboration of industries.

How different sections are covered?

1. Participation of women is focussed in programmes like PMKVY.

2. Skill training in areas like digital and financial literacy, website design, hardware repair, farm management are being offered to women.

3. The government has begun to nurture skill development in the schooling system.

4. India is addressing the concerns of skill deficit in rural areas.

5. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Kaushal Yojana (DDUGKY) trains unemployed youth under the BPL category on various skills.  

6. Many start-ups and organisations have set up skill training centres in the country’s hinterland to deliver vocational training.

Skill development programmes at global level

7. India International Skill Centre (IISC) programme provides skill training through PMKVY and Pravasi Kaushal Vikas Yojana to those seeking global mobility and certification benchmarked to international standards.

8. India is seeking international cooperation in the field.

9. India and Japan are working together to implement Japan’s Technical Intern Training Programme (TITP).

10. India has signed for technical collaboration with countries like UK, Australia and UAE.

11. Government-to-government and B2B partnerships are being sought and developed for new markets such as Western Europe, Canada, Australia and east Asia.

Where will it make an impact?

1. It increases an individual’s expertise to make them employable.

2. It is a multi-prolonged strategy providing skilled manpower to Indian industry.

3. It is important for ‘Make in India’, to widen India’s export base, tap global labour market and help in poverty alleviation.

4. It will help in overall economic development of the nation.