IAS Preparation & Strategy Mains Exam

Why and How to prepare Current Affairs for UPSC CSE?

Current Affairs play a major role in UPSC Civil Service Exam (CSE) preparation. It has dominated both Prelims and Mains in recent times with questions being directly based on recent news items/articles. Saturation in terms of questions being created from the static syllabus is also a reason for UPSC to go after Current Affairs topics.

While you can’t always expect questions to be directly lifted from news articles, following current affairs becomes important to shape and build your knowledge. The knowledge build-up will be reflecting in your ability to make your answer stand out and to add value to whatever you have studied from standard textbooks. So, there are unlimited reasons to justify “Why” you should be religiously following Current Affairs and almost “Zero” reasons to skip it in your UPSC CSE preparation.

Now moving on to the next part of the question on “How” to prepare, the first thing one needs to understand that there is no water-tight compartmentalization of Current Affairs and static subjects. All Current Affairs topics are one or the other way related to the static topics. So, broadly saying there are two ways in which one can effectively prepare Current Affairs

  1. Relate and interlink the news articles with relevant UPSC syllabus/static topics. For example, News related to topics like Bifurcation of J&K should be read in relation to India’s cooperative federalism topics.
  2. Background research of news articles that are about very new discoveries/inventions or not-so-familiar topics. This is important for getting a conceptual understanding of what one is studying. For example, if the article is on Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), a basic understanding of black hole is necessary. (But limit your research only to get an understanding. Don’t get engrossed in it.)

As the UPSC syllabus is vast, you can’t cover all the newspapers/magazines within the time you have at your disposal. But following one newspaper, preferably The Hindu, on a daily basis and making notes out of it is important.

  1. Read articles that are only relevant to the UPSC syllabus. This can be done by referring UPSC syllabus and Previous Year Question papers before starting with the newspaper.
  2. Follow a structured approach in making notes. Keep different segments for each GS paper/topic. So, it will be easy to update and revise in the future.
  3. Cover important articles of various other newspapers/sources from free online UPSC platforms. Skholar IAS helps you in this aspect by providing lucid and comprehensive coverage of news articles from exam point of view. Most often, you can make notes directly from the points given there.
  4. Once you start making notes, you will realize after 5–6 months, all that you do is update the existing notes. This helps you to keep track of developments in each topic/subject without much energy & time being spent in the process.
  5. Have a holistic approach by interlinking various current affairs topics to get a broad understanding of developments around issues/events. For example, while studying Social Security Code 2020, you should be able to link it with the Social Justice section of the GS-II paper and Unemployment & Migrant Crisis news items related to the Economic Development section of GS III paper of Mains.
  6. Finally, making notes out of Current Affairs is mandatory as it helps you in your preparation for Mains answer writing and also in retention of things you studied.
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UPSC Civil Services 2020 Interview Tips

The Union Public Service Commission released the much-awaited results of the Civil Services (Main) Examination, 2020.

If you are on the list, Congratulations!!! But it is not over yet as there is one final hurdle to make it to the merit list- The Interview/Personality Test. UPSC CSE Personality Test carries 275 marks and your performance in this stage can be a decider. So, don’t take it lightly.

First things first. Fill out the Detailed Application Form II (DAF II) to indicate the order of preferences for the Services, Zones, and Cadres. Be wise in giving the order of preference as a potential question can be expected on it and also it will play a role in your career progress.

Know about yourself. While Prelims & Mains tested your knowledge across various subjects, the interview will be dominated by questions about you. The board is going to test your personality, character, and inherent qualities. So, understand yourself well and find areas to work upon.

Be fully aware of information in your DAF. Make a list of expected questions based on DAF and important current developments, and work on them. Questions on hobbies, graduation, current job, the place you hail from, etc. are the much-expected type.

Confidence is the key to crack. This stage is very subjective and so, expressing your views confidently with a positive attitude is very important. But remember to carry only self-confidence and not arrogance. While taking a stand in your views/beliefs is self-confidence, being non-accommodative of other views would sound like arrogance.

Composure gives clarity. There are going to be instances demanding you to think on your feet and questions you don’t know answers to. To bring the best in you at those times, you need to remain calm and composed throughout the 20-30 minutes of the process.

Get exposure. Attend mock interviews and read transcripts of toppers. A simulated interview set-up will help in overcoming anxiety and stress. Constructive feedback from mock interviews and self-analysis will guide you in the actual interview. But don’t overdo it as too many suggestions and mental molding will shatter your originality.

Don’t fake or bluff. You are going to face a panel of members with extensive experience in public life. They can spot any fake facts on DAF, or lies you say to impress them. So, don’t jeopardize your chances of getting into the service by making such silly mistakes. Also, admit it when you don’t know something instead of bluffing about it.

Communication & Simplicity. Command over the language is important to drive the point across the panel. The ability to convey your opinions, thoughts simply and in a crisp manner is required. It is also a way for the panel to comprehend the clarity of your thought.

Be conscious of etiquette & body language. Behavior like wishing the panel members, being polite and respectful while disagreeing with any views of panel members, thanking the panel before leaving may sound simple but are basic. It is also a part of presenting the best of yourself to the panel.

In addition to this, being conscious of body language is crucial as your gestures express more than what you say. Make sure to maintain eye contact, appropriate body posture, and calmness. Avoid fidgeting, crouching, and sitting in an unnaturally stiff position.

Spontaneous self-evaluation is detrimental. “OMG!!! Did I answer it wrongly?”, “This answer would have impressed them”. During the interview, these kinds of spontaneous assessments of your response are not only unproductive but also detrimental. Lingering in the past responses is going to affect your performance to the follow-up questions. Once said can’t be unsaid. So, don’t stress about it and focus on the moment.

Finally, realize one thing- getting a call letter for the UPSC CSE personality test means you have done everything right so far. Remind this to yourself before entering the interview hall at Dholpur House and finish it off in style. All the best.

Exam Details IAS Preparation & Strategy Mains Exam

UPSC Mains 2020 General Studies II Analysis

GS 2 Paper Analysis

UPSC CSE GS 2 Mains paper yet again proves that civil services exam demands not a good rote memory but the ability to interrelate and analyze multiple aspects, facts and examples linked to the issue.

A detailed section-wise analysis of GS 2 paper clearly shows how UPSC is encapsulating issues that requires thorough understanding of Issues and extensive Newspaper analysis of past 1 year.


Questions Level Marks
 Polity & Constitution


 Q 1 Moderate 10
 Q 2 Moderate 10
Q 3 Moderate 10
Q 4 Difficult 10
Q 5 Difficult 10
Q 11 Difficult 15
Q 12 Difficult 15
Q 13 Difficult 15
Q 14 Difficult 15
Q 15 Moderate 15
Total  10 125


  1. “There is a need for simplification of procedure for disqualification of persons found guilty of corrupt practices under the Representation of peoples Act”. Comment.
  2. “Recent amendments to the Right to information Act will have profound impact on the autonomy and independence of the Information Commission”. Discuss
  3. How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples to validate your answer.
  4. The judicial systems in India and UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in the recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices.
  5. “Once a speaker, Always a speaker’! Do you think the practice should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implications for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India.
  6. Indian constitution exhibits centralizing tendencies to maintain unity and integrity of the nation. Elucidate in the perspective of the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897; The Disaster Management Act, 2005 and recently passed Farm Acts.
  7. Judicial Legislation is antithetical to the doctrine of separation of powers as envisaged in the Indian Constitution. In this context justify the filing of large number of public interest petitions praying for issuing guidelines to executive authorities.
  8. The strength sustenance of local institutions in India has shifted from their formative phase of ‘Functions, Functionaries and Funs’ to the contemporary stage of ‘Functionality’. Highlight the critical challenges faced by local institutions in terms of their functionality in recent times.
  9. Rajya Sabha has been transformed from a ‘useless stepney tyre’ to the most useful supporting organ in past few decades. Highlight the factors as well as the areas in which this transformation could be visible.
  10. Which steps are required for constitutionalizing of a commission? Do you think imparting constitutionality to the National Commission for Women would ensure greater gender justice and empowerment in India? Give reasons.


  1. Polity section tested aspirant’s conceptual understanding and articulation skills for effective time management to deal with lengthy issues asked in the questions.
  2. Keeping up with the trend, questions based on recent legislations on RTI, farm laws, etc. were asked. Hence newspaper editorial analysis is a must.
  3. To a great extent the questions were analytical in nature, demanding the aspirants to link recent developments with fundamental concepts.
  4. Overall this section of the paper falls under the Difficult category.
Questions Level Marks


                Q 7 Moderate 10
 Q 8 Moderate 10
Total  2 20


  1. “Institutional quality is a crucial driver of economic performance”. In this context suggest reforms in Civil Service for strengthening democracy.
  2. “The emergence of Fourth Industrial Revolution (Digital Revolution) has initiated e-Governance as an integral part of government”. Discuss.


  1. Questions were direct in nature and of moderate level, though quoting good examples like Supreme Court Judgements for question 7 and e-Governance initiatives for question 8 would be necessary to stand out from the rest.
Questions Level Marks
Social Justice


 Q 6 Moderate 10
 Q 16 Moderate 15
Q 17 Difficult 15
Q 18 Difficult 15
Total  4 55


  1. In order to enhance the prospects of social development, sound and adequate health care policies are needed particularly in the fields of geriatric and maternal health care. Discuss.
  2. “The incidence and intensity of poverty are more important in determining poverty based on income alone”. In this context analyze the latest United Nations Multidimensional Poverty Index Report.
  3. “Micro-Finance as an anti-poverty vaccine, is aimed at asset creation and income security of the rural poor in India”. Evaluate the role of Self-Help Groups in achieving the twin objectives along with empowering women in rural India.
  4. National Education Policy 2020 is in conformity with the Sustainable Development Goal-4 (2030). It intends to restructure and reorient education system in India. Critically examine the statement.


  1. Questions on Social Justice section was a mix of static and current affairs-based topics. Hence NCERT coverage along with proper current affairs analysis is what was required.
  2. The questions were more of moderate level but can also be looked upon as mini essays. As such writing practice of the candidates will be a big factor.
Questions Level Marks
International Relations  Q 9 Moderate 10
 Q 10 Difficult 10
Q 19 Moderate 15
Q 20 Moderate 15
Total  4 50


  1. Critically examine the role of WHO in providing global health security during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  2. ‘Indian diaspora has a decisive role to play in the politics and economy of America and European Countries’. Comment with examples.
  3. ‘Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD)’ is the transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance, in present times – Discuss.
  4. What is the significance of Indo-US defence deals over Indo-Russian defence deals? Discuss with reference to stability in the Indo-Pacific region.


  1. Consistent with previous years trend, the questions on International Relations were on dynamic topics requiring good command over current affairs.
  2. The questions while were moderate in difficulty but it also required multiple points to be presented in brief, if possible, with current examples.

Overall, this year’s GS 2 Mains paper was lengthy and analytical in nature. Hence, aspirants ability to articulate answers well within word limit was tested . Like prelims, Comprehensive NCERT coverage is also now a must for Mains. There is a clear predilection towards questions based on recent issues in news and the paper is testing how well an aspirant has studied editorial analysis of past 1 year.

Exam Details IAS Preparation & Strategy Mains Exam

UPSC Mains 2020 General Studies I Analysis

GS 1 Paper Analysis

After facing a challenging Essay paper, General Studies 1 gave some relief to candidates sitting for UPSC CSE (Mains) 2020. Despite significant change in the weightage allocation to different sections of GS 1 paper, the direct and basic nature of majority of the questions makes it a reasonably good scoring paper.

The following detailed section-wise analysis will give an insight about the nature and difficulty level of the paper.

  Questions Level Marks
 Indian Heritage and Culture


 Q 1 Moderate 10
 Q 2 Moderate 10
Q 11 Difficult 15
Q 12 Difficult 15
Total  4   50


Q1. The rock-cut architecture represents one of the most important sources of our knowledge of early Indian art and history. Discuss.

Q2. Pala period is the most significant phase in the history of Buddhism in India. Enumerate.

Q11. Indian Philosophy and tradition played a significant role in conceiving and shaping the monuments and their art in India. Discuss.

Q12. Persian literary sources of medieval India reflect the spirit of the age. Comment.


  1. The weightage for the Art and Culture topic has increased significantly from previous years.
  2. Questions were a mix of analytical and factual nature and falls in the Moderate to Difficult category.


  Questions Level Marks
 Modern India


 Q 3 Easy 10
 Q 13 Moderate 15
Total 2   25


Q3. Evaluate the policies of Lord Curzon and their long term implications on the national movements.

Q.13 Since the decade of the 1920s, the national movement acquired various ideological strands and thereby expanded its social base. Discuss.


  1. Increase in weightage for Art & Culture topic has been compensated with reduced weightage for History.
  2. No questions on Post-Independence and World History topics were asked.
  3. Modern India topic was of Easy to Moderate level with straight forward questions.
  Questions Level Marks
          World Geography  Q 4 Easy 10
 Q 5 Easy 10
Indian Geography Q 6 Easy 10
Q 14 Moderate 15
Q 15 Moderate 15
Q 17 Moderate 15
Economic Geography Q 7 Moderate 10
Q 16 Moderate 15
Total  8   100


World Geography

Q4. Discuss the geophysical characteristics of Circum- Pacific Zone.

Q5. The process of desertification does not have climate boundaries. Justify with examples.

Indian Geography

Q6. How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far- reaching impact on the water resources of India?

Q14. The interlinking of revivers can provide viable solutions to the multi-dimensional inter-related problems of droughts, floods and interrupted navigation. Critically examine.

Q15. Account for the huge flooding of million cities in India including the smart ones like Hyderabad and Pune. Suggest lasting remedial measures.

Q17. Examine the status of forest resources of India and its resultant impact on climate change.

Economic Geography

Q7. Account for the present location of iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples.

Q16. India has immense potential of solar energy though there are regional variations in its developments. Elaborate.


  1. Highest weightage in GS 1 paper was given to Geography, with questions on World, Indian and Economic geography.
  2. Questions tested the conceptual understanding of the aspirant and were direct in nature.
  3. Overall the section was on the Easy to Moderate side.
  Questions Level Marks


 Q 8 Difficult 10
 Q 9 Moderate 10
Q 10 Difficult 10
Q 18 Moderate 15
Q 19  Difficult 15
Q 20 Moderate 15
Total 6   75


Q8. Has caste lost its relevance in understanding the multi- cultural Indian Society? Elaborate your answer with illustrations.

Q9. COVID-19 pandemic accelerated class inequalities and poverty in India. Comment.

Q10. Do you agree that regionalism in India appears to be a consequence of rising cultural assertiveness? Argue.

Q18. Is diversity and pluralism in India under threat due to globalisation? Justify your answer.

Q19. Customs and traditions suppress reason leading to obscurantism. Do you agree?

Q20. How have digital initiatives in India contributed to the functioning of the education system in the country? Elaborate your answer.


  1. Society section was the trickiest part in the whole paper, with open-ended questions.
  2. Questions tested the analytical ability and knowledge on Indian society by demanding real-life examples and opinions.
  3. Overall the section was of Moderate to Difficult level.

In short, smartness to tackle the society section and a good command over concepts and important topics of History and Geography would have helped aspirants sail through this paper comfortably.

Exam Details IAS Preparation & Strategy

Last Minute Preparation Tips for Mains Exam

The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) for the Civil Services (Mains) Examination is an intense 10-day period that will test both your knowledge and mental tenacity. Following tips will guide you to be at your best in this test.

Revise, Do not Read

This exam requires you to comprehend and present in your answers a complex web of concepts and data from across subjects. By now, you would have made notes for all topics. Prudence on your part requires you to trust your preparation and revise your notes. Reading new topics, concepts and reports is not going to be helpful and could even compromise what you have prepared and learned.
Revision improves your memory and makes you deliver answers effectively.

Time Management

In the Mains exam, time management is as much a skill as answer writing is. The Mains paper will not only test your knowledge but also your ability to present a comprehensive answer within stipulated time. So, make sure you keep the following pointers in mind while you sit for your exam.

  1. a) Stick to the word limit. Don’t get carried away with questions about which you know a lot. Exceeding the word limit compromises the prospective answers that you would attempt.
  2. b) Move on to the next and don’t get stuck with a question. You can come back after completing the paper or when you recollect any pointers. Always attempt the questions you are confident of first.
  3. c) Use appropriate flowcharts & diagrams wherever possible to be more efficient in both time and content in expressing your points
  4. d) Stick to one pen. Remember, a good presentation is about proper structure, coherence and legibility in your answers and not excessive beautification.


This is closely related to proper and methodological preparation along with revision.

Brainstorming will train your brain to be active and efficient. On average, with hardly 8-9 minutes are available for each question to be answered, you don’t have the luxury to ponder upon the question for long.

One way to brainstorm in order to generate points is by analyzing the topic in a question in multiple dimensions. For example, if a question comes on the recent farm laws, think about it from constitutional, economic, social, political perspectives. Not only will this help in generating points faster, but also in presenting a holistic answer.

Do not Panic

The questions asked in the mains exams are a mixture of tough and very tough questions. At times candidate panics at the first look of the paper and stresses himself/herself excessively which ultimately compromises the answers that could have been attempted well. The key is being calm and composed while attempting answers and figuring out how best an answer can be constructed with information you know. Often one who does not panic ends up churning out a good answer.

Stay Positive

Remember you are one among few thousands who made it to the Mains. This shows that belong here. You possess the potential to be on the final merit list. Never doubt yourself and trust your preparation Be confident, focused, and positive throughout the process.

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Time Management for UPSC Mains Exam

Time management is key to clearing the UPSC mains exam. With the mains exam timetable out, we bring you some quick pointers on how you can best manage your time.

  • Create a practical plan: Often aspirants create mega plans on their study routine, which lack the practical aspect. With just 2 months for the mains examination, you need to create a plan which is realistic and doable. Understand which part of the day are you the most productive. Keep difficult subjects for this time. There are aspirants who are not productive in the afternoons, so they prefer to go for coaching in the afternoon batch. This is how you need to be smart with your planning and time management.

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  • Do not sweat over things: The time between the prelims result and the mains exam is when many students face a lot of anxiety. Sweating over the syllabus, the topics which you are not good at, etc. will not take you anywhere. Rather it is clearly a waste of your precious time. Shift your focus on things you know and revise them thoroughly.
  • Be regular with answer writing: The UPSC mains exams is all about answering every question in the best possible way, within the given time frame. It will be a mistake to think that you will manage the time once you have the question paper in hand. Rather every day dedicate a few hours to answer writing. The time you have invested in answer writing will help you in time management in the mains exams.

  • Take a break: Many aspirants believe in non-stop studies for the mains exam. End result is high-stress levels and exhaustion. Better time management for the IAS mains exam does not mean zero time for recreation. Rather, most toppers agree that regular breaks from studies and discussions are key to acing this exam. Take regular breaks but stick to your plan.
UPSC mains exam: Time management in the exam hall
  1. Stay away from panic
  2. Always answer the easy questions, first. Not only will you do justice to them, but it will also even boost your confidence
  3. Stick to the word limit. Never get carried away with questions about which you know a lot. Always keep the word limit in mind
  4. Use the break between two exams for light revision. Do not enter into unnecessary discussion with your friends and fellow aspirants.

UPSC mains exam is all about time management – before you take the exam as well as when you are in the exam hall.

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UPSC CSE Mains 2020 Time Table Out!

For those of you who have cleared the CSE prelims 2020, it is time to switch gears. The timetable for CSE Mains 2020 exam is out.

The exam begins on the 8th of January 2021 and goes on until the 17th of January.

The essay paper is on the 8th of January, followed by General Studies I and II on the 9th. The 10th of January is the exam on General Studies III and IV.  Post this, UPSC has provided a gap of 5 days.

On the 16th of January, aspirants will have their Indian Language and English Language paper. Followed by the optional paper on the 17th of January.

You can find the PDF copy here – IAS Mains 2020 Time Table

For more details, visit

We recommend you plan out your time and strategy in sync with the Mains 2020 timetable. Wishing you all the very best!!

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NCERT Books for Civil Service Exam: To Read or Not to Read

Every novice in UPSC exam preparation, has this question – Should s/he read or not read NCERT books for civil service exams? In fact, we have even come across aspirants who do are not clear about the importance of the NCERT books even after their first or second attempt. This is why we bring you a blog solely to clear all the confusion and myths around this topic.

Are NCERT books enough for civil service exams?

Well, we will not say that NCERT books alone are sufficient for clearing civil service exams. The fact is these books form the foundation of your preparation for CSE. Skipping these books, and moving on to other textbooks and guides might hurt your scores in Prelims as well as mains examination.

Which NCERT books to read for civil service exams?

Now that it is clear that NCERT books are critical for CSE, the other logical question which arises is – “which NCERT books do we read?”

Well, as a serious candidate for CSE it is recommended that you cover all the humanities books from class 6th to 12th. Covering the relevant chapters from NCERT science textbooks will give you a major advantage in the Prelims examination. These books not only clear your basic understanding of the subject but also help you with answer writing in the GS mains exams.

NCERT Books for General Studies Paper I

NCERT History Books for CSE:

    • History: NCERT Class VI – Our Past
    • History: NCERT Class VII – Our Past -I
    • History: NCERT Class VIII – Our Past II and III
    • History: NCERT Class IX – India and the Contemporary World – I
    • History: NCERT Class IX – India and the Contemporary World – II
    • History: NCERT Class X – Themes In World History
    • History: NCERT Class XII – Themes In Indian History – I
    • History: NCERT Class XII – Themes in Indian History – II
    • History: NCERT Class XII – Themes In Indian History – III
  • NCERT Books on Indian Society for UPSC exam:
    • Indian Society: NCERT Class VI – Social Science: Social & Political Life I
    • Indian Society: NCERT Class VII – Social Science: Social & Political Life II
    • Indian Society: NCERT Class VIII – Social Science: Social & Political Life III
    • Indian Society: NCERT Class XI – Sociology: Understanding Society
    • Indian Society: NCERT Class XII – Indian Society
    • Indian Society: NCERT Class XII – Social Change and Development in India
    • IAS aspirants can also refer to the class 12 book for Sociology.
  • NCERT Indian Art and Culture books for civil service exam:
    • Art & Culture: NCERT Class XI – An Introduction to Indian Art
    • Art & Culture: NCERT Class XI – Living Craft Traditions of India (Chapters 9 & 10)
  • UPSC Preparation Books from NCERT Geography Books for IAS:
    • Geography: NCERT Class VI – The Earth Our Habitat
    • Geography: NCERT Class VII – Our Environment
    • Geography: NCERT Class VIII – Resource and Development
    • Geography: NCERT Class IX – Contemporary India – I
    • Geography: NCERT Class X – Contemporary India – II
    • Geography: NCERT Class XI – Fundamentals of Physical Geography
    • Geography: NCERT Class XI – India – Physical Environment
    • Geography: NCERT Class XII – Fundamentals of Human Geography
    • Geography: NCERT Class XII – India – People and Economy
NCERT Books for General Studies Paper-II:
  • Polity NCERT Books for UPSC
    • Polity: NCERT Class IX – Political Science: Democratic Politics Part – I
    • Polity: NCERT Class X – Political Science: Democratic Politics Part – II
    • Polity: NCERT Class XI – Political Science: Indian Constitution at Work
    • Polity: NCERT Class XI – Political Science: Political Theory
    • Polity: NCERT Class XII – Political Science I: Contemporary World Politics
    • Polity: NCERT Class XII – Political Science II: Politics in India since Independence
    • For Polity: Class 9 to 12 NCERT books should be read in detail, with a focus on 11th and 12th
NCERT for General Studies Paper III:
  • NCERT Books on Economy for UPSC
    • Economy: NCERT Class IX – Economics
    • Economy: NCERT Class X – Understanding Economic Development
    • Economy: NCERT Class XI – Indian Economic Development
    • Economy: NCERT Class XII – Introductory Microeconomics
    • Economy: NCERT Class XII – Introductory Macroeconomics
  • Science & Technology IAS Preparation Books from NCERT
    • Science: NCERT Class VI
    • Science: NCERT Class VII
    • Science: NCERT Class VIII
    • Science: NCERT Class IX
    • Science: NCERT Class X
    • Science: NCERT Class XI – Chemistry: Unit 14 & Biology: Units 4 & 5
    • Science: NCERT Class XII – Chemistry: Unit 16 & Biology: Units 8, 9 & 10
  • UPSC Books from NCERT on Environment & Ecology
    • Science: Class XII – Biology: last four Chapters (13 to 16)
NCERT Books for General Studies Paper IV
  • Ethics: NCERT Class XII – Psychology

As you can see the number of NCERTs which need to be covered for civil service exams is high and covers almost all the subjects. To make your preparation process simpler, we bring you a dedicated course on the NCERT books for the civil service exam.

What do you get from Skholar’s NCERT Course?

This course is the most comprehensive course on NCERTs in India compromising detailed coverage of 30 NCERT across subjects ranging from 6th to 12th standard. It is aimed towards building the basic concepts and foundation of your UPSC Civil Services preparation. The course entails coverage through interactive slides, images, flow charts, and other tools to make your understanding effective. With Skholar NCERT, Skholar strives to provide you with the best foundation for your UPSC preparation.

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Biodiversity Hotspots in India

The topic of biodiversity hotspots in India is important for both prelims as well as mains examination. From MCQs to short answers in the Mains exam, to at times a few questions thrown at you at the interview level – knowing the hotspots in India is a MUST.

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You might think what is so important about biodiversity and its hotspots is it in India or the world. The fact is in a world that is constantly battling climate change, it is critical that we not only preserve these hotspots but also work towards expanding its area.

Let us take a step-by-step approach toward this topic.

What is Biodiversity?

Biodiversity comprises ecosystems, species, and genetics. In simple words, it is a complex web of the entire flora and fauna in a particular habitat.

Species richness along with species evenness are the two major components to define and measure biodiversity. The richness of biodiversity measured based on the number of species found in that particular region. Species evenness examines the proportion of species in a particular site. If a site has a more equal number of species then the species evenness factor is high and vice versa.

Biodiversity can be broadly divided into three levels:

a. Genetic diversity

b. Species diversity

c. Community & Ecosystem diversity

What is Biodiversity Hotspot?

The term “Biodiversity hotspots” was coined by Norman Myers. The phrase refers to the regions known for their high species richness and endemism.

To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot on Myers 2000 edition of the hotspot-map, a region must meet two strict criteria viz.

  • Must have at least 1,500 species of vascular plants as endemics (> 0.5% of the world’s total)
  • Should have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation habitat

These sites support close to 60% of the world’s species and hold an extremely high share of endemic species. This is why they qualify as biodiversity hotspots.

Biodiversity Hotspots in India

The four biodiversity hotspots in India are:

  1. The Western Ghats
  2. The eastern Himalayas
  3. The Indo-Burma Region
  4. The Sundaland
Biodiversity Hotspots in India
Biodiversity Hotspots in India

Biodiversity hotspots in India are an important topic for the IAS Exam and are under UPSC Mains GS-III syllabus. Register for more information!

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How to Prepare for CSE 2021?

Are you aiming to crack the CSE 2021 exams? Whether you are a fresher, or someone who has already given few attempts – we are sure there is a certain kind of confusion when it comes to preparing for IAS from the scratch. This is why it is essential to do some background work before diving into the UPSC preparations.

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Regarded as the mother of all the competitive exams in India, this is perhaps the only exam where a doctor, an engineer, a student from a humanities background, and even an MBA from some premier institute compete on the same grounds. UPSC CSE exam, therefore, is a true leveler in its selection criteria.

Often CSE aspirants get overwhelmed not just by the scope of the syllabus, but also by the range of students aspiring to crack this prestigious exam. Yet, the fact is you do not have anything to worry about. With proper guidance and strategy, cracking CSE 2021 should be pretty achievable for you.

How to Prepare for CSE 2021: Top 5 Tips
  1. Stick to Syllabus: Before planning on how to study, you should know what to study. Getting a sense of boundary to the vastness of UPSC CSE is very important. So, prepare according to the syllabus.
  2. Restrict your Resources: Enthusiasm in preparation should not turn into a race behind study materials. You should wisely pick the books/materials and limit yourself to them.
  3. Analyze to Understand: Analyzing previous year papers gives an understanding of the Civil Service Exam. It is the key to know how to prepare. So, go through the last 3-4 years of question papers.
  4. Practice to Perfect: Preparation should be a process of realizing your strengths and weakness to perform better. This is possible only through mock tests and regular answer writing practice.
  5. Stay Motivated: CSE preparation is more of a marathon than a sprint. Maintaining energy levels and bouncing back from lows requires you to remain motivated throughout the process

Remember right planning and consistent focus is the key to clearing the civil service exam.

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